The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments


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Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer: A Guide to Cancer and its Treatments (3rd edition)

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Great Lives from History: The 17th Century, [ Occasionally, an abdominal or pelvic mass may be palpable 3,7,9. The gold standard of diagnosing bladder tumors is urine cytology and transurethral cystoscopy. Cytology is very specific a positive result is highly indicative of bladder cancer but suffers from low sensitivity There are newer urine bound markers which are more sensitive but not as specific as urine cytology 2,8,9.

The treatment of bladder tumors depends on how deep the tumor invades into the bladder wall. Superficial tumors can be "shaved off" using an electrocautery device attached to a resectoscope. BCG instillation is also used to treat and prevent the recurrence of superficial tumors 10, Instillations of chemotherapy, such as valrubicin Valstar into the bladder can also be used to treat BCG-refractory CIS disease when cystectomy is not an option.


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Tumors that infiltrate the bladder require more radical surgery where part or the entire bladder is removed a cystectomy and the urinary stream is diverted. In some cases, a neobladder from a segment of intestinal tissue, but this largely depends upon patient preference, age of patient, renal function, and the site of the lesion 7, A combination of radiation and chemotherapy can also be used to treat invasive disease.

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The study is a retrospective hospital based type. Of Adult patients admitted to the TASH for a surgical treatment of bladder tumors between January and December the medical records of 97 The operation theatre registry was also used to complete the data. Analysis was done using computer based statistical software SPSS version We employed various surgical techniques for treatments of bladder cancer such as were transurethral resection of bladder tumor TURBT , cystectomy, biopsy and fulguration.

TURBT or fulguration was used for superficial tumors using an electrocautery device. Tumors that infiltrate the bladder required more radical surgery where part or the entire bladder is removed and the urinary stream is diverted such as ureterosigmoidostomy. In some cases, a neobladder was constructed from a segment of intestinal tissue, few had anti-incontinence procedure.

Of the 97 patients, the majority of patients were males 60 Duration of complaints ranged between 1and 48 months with mean of Genitourinary sonography and uretherocystoscopic examination of the bladder were the main modalities of investigation in the diagnosis of bladder tumors, in 94 Uretherocystoscopic examination of the bladder revealed papillary growth in 77 Tumors were multifocal in 25 Of the 87 patients with bladder cancer, 66 Four 4.

In 74 Most

The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments
The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments
The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments
The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments
The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments The Gale encyclopedia of cancer: a guide to cancer and its treatments

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