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J Infect Dis —6. Bergdoll MS.

Superantigen (SAg): Examples and Roles

Monkey feeding test for staphylococcal enterotoxin. Methods Enzymol — The formation of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin in food environments and advances in risk assessment. Virulence 2 6 — Staphylococcal enterotoxin B as a nonimmunological mast cell stimulus in primates: the role of endogenous cysteinyl leukotrienes. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82 — Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B challenge of monkeys: correlation of plasma levels of arachidonic acid cascade products with occurrence of illness.

Infect Immun 58 —9.

Staphylococcal enterotoxin induces emesis through increasing serotonin release in intestine and it is downregulated by cannabinoid receptor 1. Cell Microbiol 9 — Hu DL, Nakane A. Mechanisms of staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced emesis. Eur J Pharmacol — Bacterial superantigens and superantigen-like toxins. Structural basis for differential binding of staphylococcal enterotoxin A and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 to class II major histocompatibility molecules.

The solution structure of a class II major histocompatibility complex superantigen binding domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun —5. Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen. Nature —8. T cell activation. Annu Rev Immunol 27 — Staphylococcus aureus: the toxic presence of a pathogen extraordinaire. Curr Med Chem 16 — J Immunol — Staphylococcal enterotoxin A has two cooperative binding sites on major histocompatibility complex class II.

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J Exp Med — Cross-linking MHC class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a requirement for inflammatory cytokine gene expression. J Exp Med —7. Fleischer B, Schrezenmeier H. T cell stimulation by staphylococcal enterotoxins. Clonally variable response and requirement for major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on accessory or target cells.

Superantigen (SAg): Examples and Roles - Microbeonline

Chatila T, Geha RS. Cross-linking of MHC class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A is essential for antigen-presenting cell and T cell activation. Binding of staphylococcal enterotoxin A to accessory cells is a requirement for its ability to activate human T cells. J Immunol —8. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-B-induced lethal shock in mice is T-cell-dependent, but disease susceptibility is defined by the non-T-cell compartment. Clin Immunol 98 — Cemerski S, Shaw A. Immune synapses in T-cell activation. Curr Opin Immunol 18 — CD28 costimulation can promote T cell survival by enhancing the expression of Bcl-xl.

Immunity 3 — Krakauer T. Co-stimulatory receptors for the superantigen staphyloccoccal enterotoxin B on human vascular endothelial cells and T cells. J Leukoc Biol 56 — Weiss A.

16.6: Superantigens

T lymphocyte activation. In: Paul W, editor. Fundamental Immunology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven T cell-antigen receptor signal transduction. Curr Opin Immunol 11 —8. Isakov N, Altman A. Front Immunol 3 Paul S, Schaefer BC. Trends Immunol 34 — Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell — The induction of CC chemokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by staphylococcal exotoxins and its prevention by pentoxifylline. J Leukoc Biol 66 — Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: diverse roles in immune cell activation.

Annu Rev Immunol 22 — Nat Immunol 10 — Mol Biol Cell 22 —7.

Molecular control of the MEMO family of ubiquitin-binding proteins. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 14 — Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces inositol phospholipid turnover, protein kinase C translocation, and calcium mobilization in human T cells. J Immunol —5. Bacterial superantigens bypass Lck-dependent T cell receptor signaling by activating a Galphadependent, PLC-beta-mediated pathway. Immunity 25 — Janus kinases in immune cell signaling.

Central role for interleukin-2 in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 61 — Immunoregulatory functions of mTOR inhibition. Nat Rev Immunol 9 — Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12 — Nutrient regulation of the mTOR complex 1 signaling pathway. Mol Cells 35 — Laplante M, Sabatini DM. J Cell Sci — Immunopharmacology of rapamycin.

Annu Rev Immunol 14 — TOR signaling in growth and metabolism. Rapamycin protects mice from staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced toxic shock and blocks cytokine release in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 — J Thromb Haemost 1 — Human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens. Engagement of MHC class II molecules by superantigen induces inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

J Exp Med —6. Epithelial ion transport and barrier abnormalities evoked by superantigen-activated immune cells are inhibited by interleukin but not interleukin J Pharmacol Exp Ther — Transcytosis of staphylococcal superantigen toxins. Role of substance P in immediate-type skin reactions induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin B in unsensitized monkeys.


J Allergy Clin Immunol 84 —5. Innate immune system is activated by stimulation of vaginal epithelial cells with Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Infect Immun 73 — Gram positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome. FEBS J — Vial T, Descotes J. Immune-mediated side-effects of cytokines in human. Toxicol — Tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a central role in interleukin-2 induced pulmonary vascular leak and lymphocyte accumulation.

Cell Immunol — The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity.

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Nat Rev Immunol 10 — Kawai T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity. Immunity 34 — Superantigen recognition by HLA class II on monocytes up-regulates toll-like receptor 4 and enhances proinflammatory responses to endotoxin. Blood — Increased surface toll-like receptor 2 expression in superantigen shock. Crit Care Med 36 — The inflammasome: an integrated view. Cell Mol Life Sci 67 — Tumor necrosis factor and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies.

J Rheumatol 85 — McKay DM. Bacterial superantigens: provocateurs of gut dysfunction and inflammation? Trends Immunol 22 — T cell-mediated lethal shock triggered in mice by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: critical role of tumor necrosis factor. J Exp Med —8. Interferons, immunity and cancer immunoediting. Nat Rev Immunol 6 — Immunity 36 — Type 1 interferons in infectious disease.

Nat Rev Immunol 15 — Statdependent and -independent pathways in IFN-dependent signaling. Trends Immunol 23 — Ann Surg 6 — Eur J Immunol 39 — Malek TR, Castro I.

Beyond the cytokine storm

Interleukin-2 receptor signaling: at the interface between tolerance and immunity. Immunity 33 — Kyriakis JM, Avruch J. Mammalian MAPK signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. Physiol Rev 92 — Suppression of acute lung inflammation by intracellular peptide delivery of a nuclear import inhibitor. Mol Ther 17 — Res Vet Sci 86 —7. PLoS One 4 :e Neutrophils cascading their way to inflammation. Trends Immunol 32 — Zlotnik A, Yoshie D. The chemokine superfamily revisited. Induction of acute inflammation in vivo by staphylococcal superantigens.

Critical timing, location and duration of glucocorticoid administration rescues mice from superantigen-induced shock and attenuates lung injury. Int Immunopharmacol 9 — Induction of acute inflammatory lung injury by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Bacterial superantigens induce rapid and T cell receptor V beta-selective down-regulation of L-selectin gp90Mel in vivo.


The Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B superantigen induces specific T cell receptor down-regulation by increasing its internalization. J Biol Chem — T cells made deficient in interleukin-2 production by exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B in vivo are primed for interferon-gamma and interleukin secretion.

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