Let me begin this preface with a confession of a few of my own biases. First, I believe that theory, and the models that flow from it, should provide us with the tools to understand, analyze and solve problems. The test of a model or theory then should not be based upon its elegance, though we as academics tend to weight that heavily, but upon its usefulness in problem solving. Second, there is little in corporate financial theory, in my view, that is new and revolutionary. The core principles of corporate finance are common sense ones, and have changed little over time.
That should not be surprising.
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Corporate finance is only a few decades old and people have been running businesses for thousands of years, and it would be exceedingly presumptuous of us to believe that they were in the dark until corporate finance theorists came along and told them what to do. To be fair, it is true that corporate financial theory has made advances in taking common sense principles and providing them with structure, but these advances have been primarily on the details.
The story line in corporate finance has remained remarkably consistent over time.
Talking about story lines allows me to set the first theme of this book. This book tells a story, which essentially summarizes the corporate finance view of the world. It classifies all decisions made by any business into three groups - decisions on where to invest the resources or funds that the business has raised, either internally or externally the investment decision , decisions on where and how to raise funds to finance these investments the financing decision and decisions on how much and in what form to return funds back to the owners the dividend decision.
As I see it, the first principles of corporate finance can be summarized in figure 1, which also lays out a site map for the book. Every section of this book relates to some part of this picture, and each chapter is introduced with it, with emphasis on that portion that will be analyzed in that chapter. Note the chapter numbers below each section. Put another way, there are no sections of this book that are not traceable to this framework. As you look at the chapter outline for the book, you are probably wondering where the chapters on present value, option pricing and bond pricing are, as well as the chapters on short term financial management, working capital and international finance.
The first set of chapters, which I would classify as "tools" chapters are now contained in the appendices, and I relegated them there, not because I think that they are unimportant, but because I want the focus to stay on the story line. It is important that we understand the concept of time value of money, but only in the context of mesuring returns on investments better and valuing business.
Option pricing theory is elegant and provides impressive insights, but only in the context of looking at options embedded in projects and financing instruments like convertible bonds. The second set of chapters I excluded for a very different reason.
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As I see it, the basic principles of whether and how much you should invest in inventory, or how generous your credit terms should be, are no different than the basic principles that would apply if you were building a plant or buying equipment or opening a new store. Put another way, there is no logical basis for the differentiation between investments in the latter which in most corporate finance books is covered in the capital budgeting chapters and the former which are considered in the working capital chapters.
Organizations and their functions depend on various external and internal factors. The functions of audits are, themselves, types of organizations that are affected by various factors in the environment.
The presence of such factors is why auditing can be managed by applying the contingency theory, with a recognition that processes and outcomes of audits are dependent on variable and contingent factors. On a broad level, the audit process is straightforward. Auditors require access to documents, systems, policies and procedures to manage an audit. They must remain compliant with industry standards, government regulations and internal requests.
Audit teams may begin the audit process with meetings where they gather risk and control awareness, after which the field work begins. During the audit process, auditors perform substantive procedures and test controls. They then draft reports that they submit to management and regulatory authorities.lenna.tk
Trajectories of Small Business Financial Structure | SpringerLink
The audit subprocesses, particularly in planning and field work, include contingencies such as business type, employee skill level, applicable laws, available audit workforce, available technology and systems, and deadline. Majluf, Myers, Stewart C.
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