World paper and paperboard demand and production are increasing; annual production is expected to grow from approximately million tonnes Mt in to between Mt low estimate and Mt high estimate in The largest share of this growth will take place in China, India, and other developing countries see Figure below. Annual world paper and paperboard production IEA Studies have documented the potential to save energy by implementing commercially-available energy-efficiency technologies and measures in the pulp and paper industry worldwide.
However, today, given the projected continuing increase in absolute paper production, future reductions e.
Energy Technology - Carbon Dioxide Management and Other Technologies | Tao Wang | Springer
Many studies from around the world have identified sector-specific and cross- energy-efficiency technologies for the pulp and paper industry that have already been commercialized See figure below. However, information is scarce and scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies for the pulp and paper industry that have not yet been commercialized. Figure: Commercialized energy efficiency technologies and measures for pulp and paper industry Source: IIP, My colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and I wrote a report that consolidated available information on emerging technologies for the pulp and paper industry with the goal of giving engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties easy access to a well-structured database of information on this topic.
The information about the 36 emerging technologies for the pulp and paper industry was covered in the report and was presented using a standard structure for each technology.
Table below shows the list of the technologies covered. Emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for the pulp and paper industry Kong and Hasanbeigi, et al. Shifting away from conventional processes and products will require a number of developments including: education of producers and consumers; new standards; aggressive research and development to address the issues and barriers confronting emerging technologies; government support and funding for development and deployment of emerging technologies; rules to address the intellectual property issues related to dissemination of new technologies; and financial incentives e.
The technology can be used in power plants, paper mills, ethanol processors and other manufacturing facilities.
As a carbon-negative technology, BECCS takes advantage of the innate ability of trees, grasses and other plants to absorb atmospheric CO 2 for photosynthesis. In nature, the CO 2 is eventually released back into the atmosphere as the plant decays.
Carbon Dioxide Management and Other Technologies
The result is a net-negative reduction in atmospheric CO 2. The first project was launched in by the Department of Energy at a corn ethanol production facility in Decatur, Ill. Each day, about 1, metric tons of CO 2 emitted during ethanol fermentation are captured and stored in a sandstone formation some 7, feet underground.
The goal of the project is to sequester 1 million metric tons of CO 2 a year - the equivalent of removing , automobiles from the road. Approximately 60 percent of global CO 2 emissions come from power plants and other industries fueled by coal, natural gas and oil. Capturing and sequestering those emissions could play a significant role in curbing global warming.
To make the process carbon negative, researchers have proposed a BECCS co-fired power plant that runs on a mixture of fossil fuel such as coal and vegetation wood, grass or straw, for example.
A percentage of the CO 2 emissions would come from burnt vegetation. Therefore, capturing and storing those emissions would be a net-negative process.
Estimates show that by , BECCS technologies could sequester 10 billion metric tons of industrial CO 2 emissions annually worldwide. But according to the GCEP report, major technical and economic hurdles must be overcome, such as the relative inefficiency of biomass fuels and the high cost of carbon capture and storage CCS. Field and Milne also assessed the pros and cons of biochar - a carbon-negative technology based on the same principle as BECCS. Biochar is a plant byproduct similar to charcoal that can be made from lumber waste, dried corn stalks and other plant residues.
Heating vegetation slowly without oxygen - a process called pyrolysis - produces carbon-rich chunks of biochar that can be placed in the soil as fertilizer. Like BECCS, the goal is to permanently lock carbon underground instead of letting CO 2 re-enter the atmosphere as the plant decomposes.
One advantage of biochar is its simplicity, the authors said. Implementing biochar technology on a global scale could result in the sequestration of billions of metric tons of carbon a year, they added.
However, long-term sequestration "would require high biochar stability," they wrote. The type of feedstock also contributes to stability, with wood being more stable than grasses and manure. Questions also have been raised about the impact of biochar on soil conservation, biodiversity and water use. As an example, the authors pointed to research showing that negative effects on soil fertility can occur if the pH of the biochar and the soil are not well matched.
According to the authors, biochar systems can be net negative if the biochar is made from waste biomass, sustainably harvested crop residues or crops grown on abandoned land that has not reverted to forest. On the other hand, biochar production that relies on forest ecosystems may result in a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions, they cautioned.
Even large agricultural systems can be net negative.
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