The Raising of Lazarus is Rembrandt's only painting of this miracle marking the culmination of Christ's ministry, but he also made drawings and etchings of the same subject. Christ's divine and human nature is revealed as he stands in the cave where Lazarus was buried, his hand raised to perform the miracle, his face filled with apprehension and triumph. Rembrandt interprets Lazarus's rising not only in direct correspondence with Christ's forceful gesture but also in response to the divine power it has unleashed by evoking faith.
Around Christ and the tomb huddle the astounded witnesses—among them Mary and Martha, Lazarus's sisters—whose gestures and expressions record successive states of awareness and awe before what is unfolding. The dramatic darkness of the cave does not obscure the subtle colors--mauve, rose, and aqua--of the costumes or the glinting highlights of the quiver and scabbard hanging at the right. Bibliography Schwartz, Gary. New York: Viking, Bruyn, J. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings.
The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, Schwartz, Gary. Bredius, A.
The Raising of Lazarus
Rembrandt: the Complete Edition of the Paintings. London: Phaidon Press, Hinterding, Erik. Tokyo: National Museum of Western Art, Straten, Roelof van. Young Rembrandt: the Leiden Years, Leiden: Foleor Publishers, Rosenberg, Charles M. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Lehmbeck, Leah, editor.
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Donahue, Kenneth. Schaefer, Scott, and Peter Fusco.
Price, Lorna. Rembrandt-The Painter at Work. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, Schama, Simon. Rembrandt's Eyes.
New York: Alfred A. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn July 15, — October 4, is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history.
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His contributions to art came in a period that historians call the Dutch Golden Age roughly coinciding with the seventeenth century , in which Dutch world power, political influence, science, commerce, and culture — particularly painting — reached their pinnacle. Thorne: In a letter to a patron Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement , translated from die meeste ende di naetuereelste beweechgelickheijt. Whether this refers to objectives material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual as has no other painter in Western art.
Rembrandt produced over paintings , nearly etchings, and 2, drawings. He was a prolific painter of self-portraits, producing almost a hundred of them including some 20 etchings throughout his long career. Together they give us a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance, and — more importantly — his deeper being, as revealed by his richly weathered face. Among the prominent characteristics of his work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio but adapted for very personal means; his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed; and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age.
His immediate family — his wife Saskia, his son Titus, and his common-law wife Hendrickje — often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical , biblical , or historical themes. Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on July 15 traditionally but more probably in in Leiden, the Netherlands. Conflicting sources state that his family either had 7, 9 or 10 children.
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His family was quite well to do; his father was a miller, his mother was a baker's daughter. As a boy he attended Latin school and was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting; he was soon apprenticed to a Leiden history painter, Jacob van Swanenburgh.
After a brief but important apprenticeship with the famous painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam , Rembrandt opened a studio in Leiden, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens. In , Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou.
In Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman and poet Constantijn Huygens, the father of Christiaan Huygens a famous Dutch mathematician and physicist , who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of the Hague. As a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until By , Rembrandt had established such a good reputation that he received several assignments for portraits from Amsterdam.
As a result, he moved to that city and into the house of an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh. This move eventually led, in , to the marriage of Rembrandt and Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburg. This was obviously a marriage of love. Saskia came from a good family her father had been lawyer and burgemeester mayor of Leeuwarden.
When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. In the local church they got married, without the presence of any of his relatives. In , Rembrandt and Saskia moved to a prominent house in the Jodenbreestraat in the Jewish quarter, which later became the Rembrandt House Museum. It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbours to model for his Old Testament scenes.
Only their third child, Titus, who was born in , survived into adulthood. Saskia died in soon after Titus's birth, probably from tuberculosis. In the late s Saskia was succeeded in Rembrandt's affections by the much younger Hendrickje Stoffels, who had initially been Rembrandt's maidservant. In they had a daughter, Cornelia, bringing Hendrickje an official reproach from the Reformed church for "living in sin. Rembrandt lived beyond his means, buying many art pieces, prints often used in his paintings , and rarities, which probably caused his bankruptcy in Because of his bankruptcy he had to sell most of his paintings.
He also had to sell his house, and his printing-press, and move to a more modest accommodation on the Rozengracht. Here, Hendrickje and Titus started an art shop to make ends meet. In he was contracted to complete a series of major paintings for the newly built city hall, this only after the artist who had been previously commissioned died before completing the work.
Rembrandt outlived both Hendrickje and Titus.
[PDF] A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings: 1625-1631 (Rembrandt Research Project Foundation) Full
Rembrandt died soon after his son, on October 4, in Amsterdam, and was buried in an unmarked grave in Westerkerk. This picture was called the Patrouille de Nuit by the French and the Night Watch by Sir Joshua Reynolds because, upon its discovery, the picture was so dimmed and defaced by time that it was almost indistinguishable and it looked quite like a night scene.
After it was cleaned, it was discovered to represent broad day — a party of musketeers stepping from a gloomy courtyard into the blinding sunlight.
The piece was commissioned for the new hall of the Kloveniersdoelen , the musketeer branch of the civic militia. Rembrandt departed from convention, which ordered that such genre pieces should be stately and formal, rather a line-up than an action scene. Instead he showed the militia readying themselves to embark on a mission what kind of mission, an ordinary patrol or some special event, is a matter of debate. His new approach caused a row, especially among the militia members who ended up at the back of the scene and were hardly visible.
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